Comparison Table Of Transporation Mileages Web Page Started Approximately 2000-2002 Most recent update: Feb. 11 2009                                          
                                                         
Vehicle  Year Of Vehicle Type of Vehicle  Miles Per International Standard Unit Energy (Megajoule) Miles Per Standardized Unit Energy (Million BTU (IT)) Miles Per Standardized Unit Energy (KWH) Miles Per KiloCalorie Miles Per Gallon Of Gasoline Equivalent, (MPGE) (1 gallon gasoline assumed equal to approximately 113,500 BTU (IT), depending on more than one variable factor) Background Data: Miles Per Gallon Gasoline (EPA Combined Cycle Where Possible) Background Data: Miles Per kWh for Battery Electric Vehicles (Data is as measured from charger-socket-to-wheel) Background Data: Miles Per Gallon of #2 Diesel Background Data: Miles Per Gallon B100 (100% Biodiesel) Background Data: Miles Per Million BTU Max Passenger Multiplier (approx.) Data Source Website Reference To Data Source Additional Websites Additional Websites Range Per Fully Charged Battery or Full Tank of Fuel  Full Tank Or Charge Energy Content 0-60 mph Acceleration  Top Speed  Regenerative Brakes Used  Grid-Chargeable  MSRP  Energy Conversion Type Storage Type Battery Type Comments, Notes
Bicycling   Bicycle 5.45 5753.30 19.63 0.0228 653.00 653.00         1 10                 No.   Human-mechanical Human/Mechanical-Wheels-Gears    
2008 Vectrix (2-wheeler) 2008 BEV (2-wheeler) 2.32 2447.37 8.35 0.0097 277.78   8.35       1 1 http://evworld.com/blogs/index.cfm?authorid=51&blogid=676               Yes      Battery NiMH average of conservative empirical data
Walking   (human power) 1.96 2070.48 7.06 0.0082 235.00 235.00         1 10                 No.   Human Human    
Electric Light Rail   Electric Rail 1.67 1762.11 6.01 0.0070 200.00 200.00         Hundreds 14 http://strickland.ca/efficiency.html                   grid grid grid passenger-mpg
2009 BMW Mini-E 2009 BEV 1.50 1582.73 5.40 0.0063 179.64   5.40       4 1                 Yes      Battery LiOn  
2009 Th!nk City 2009 BEV 1.04 1093.26 3.73 0.0043 124.08   3.73       4 8                 Yes      Battery NaNiCl (guess: website unclear) 3.73-4.76 miles per kWH range estimated from manufacturer data on battery capacity and range depending on cycle.  Use conservative side
1997 Panasonic Lead-Acid EV1 1997 BEV 0.99 1049.29 3.58 0.0042 119.09   3.58       2 ? 13                 Yes      Battery Lead-Acid  
2009 Tesla 2009 BEV 0.99 1046.36 3.57 0.0042 118.76   3.57       2 9 http://www.teslamotors.com/               Yes      Battery LiOn 100/28
2002 Toyota RAV4 Electric (Government Mileage Estimate) 2002 BEV 0.94 986.78 3.37 0.0039 112.00 112.00         4 6                 Yes      Battery NiMH  
1995-2001 Solectria Force NiMH 3-Seat Geo Metro 4-door  1995-2001 BEV 0.87 920.33 3.14 0.0037 104.46   3.14       3 2               Yes  Yes      Battery NiMH Lead-Acid and Ni-Cads also Available. 11/10/01: They've removed info about the Force... I don't know if they still make it.
                                                         
Vehicle  Year Of Vehicle Type of Vehicle  Miles Per International Standard Unit Energy (Megajoule) Miles Per Standardized Unit Energy (Million BTU (IT)) Miles Per Standardized Unit Energy (KWH) Miles Per KiloCalorie Miles Per Gallon Of Gasoline Equivalent, (MPGE) (1 gallon gasoline assumed equal to approximately 113,500 BTU (IT), depending on more than one variable factor) Background Data: Miles Per Gallon Gasoline (EPA Combined Cycle Where Possible) Background Data: Miles Per kWh (BEVs, others) Background Data: Miles Per Gallon of #2 Diesel Background Data: Miles Per Gallon B100 (100% Biodiesel) Background Data: Miles Per Million BTU Max Passenger Multiplier (approx.) Data Source Website Reference To Data Source Additional Websites Additional Websites Range Per Fully Charged Battery or Full Tank of Fuel  Full Tank Or Charge Energy Content 0-60 mph Acceleration  Top Speed  Regenerative Brakes Used  Grid-Chargeable  MSRP  Energy Conversion Type Storage Type Battery Type Comments, Notes
1999 GM EV1 2-seater NiMH 1999 BEV 0.74 785.79 2.68 0.0031 89.19   2.68       2 2, 1 http://avt.inel.gov/fsev.shtml     130 (data source 1)   Less Than 9 Seconds  80 mph (electronically limited)  Yes  Yes  [2001 archived information: No Longer Manufactured. As of 02/21/2001 there are reportedly a few hundred refurbished lead-acid ones which will be available in a month or two for lease at California and Arizona Saturn Dealers, for $350 per month plus mileage (though GM has lied in the past about the schedule of such matters). Availability is severe-wait-list-only and only a select few will be chosen by GM who "qualify" to lease the car.]   Battery NiMH [archived notes from approx. 2001-2002] Arguably the best EV ever put on the market, and in the eyes of many owners the best car they ever had, GM refuses to make any more. In the late 90's it was available only in California, Arizona and parts of Georgia. You might be able to get your hands on one go to your Saturn Dealer First-Quarter 2001 and are very lucky and patient. Here is some discussion of the lengths to which GM went to prevent the success of this car.
2002 Toyota RAV4 Electric (one driver's empirical data) 2002 BEV 0.71 753.26 2.57 0.0030 85.50   2.57       4 5               Yes  Yes  About $42,000 but there are about $10,000 in incentives    Battery NiMH (2002?) archived information: [was: Available to fleet buyers nationwide: Contact Greg Glander: 310-468-4042. Available to consumers in California by going to their web page at: http://rav4ev.toyota.com Not available to consumers outside of California unless they succeed in lying and claiming they are a fleet-buyer.]
2005 EnergyCS PHEV 2005 PHEV 0.71 750.75 2.56 0.0030 85.21 85.21         4 12 http://jcwinnie.biz/wordpress/?p=937               Yes           
2001 Ford Ranger Lead-Acid Electric Truck  2001 BEV 0.63 665.33 2.27 0.0026 75.52   2.27       2 1               Yes?  Yes  ?    Battery Lead-Acid 10/08/02: The Ranger EV appears to be for lease only to fleet managers, not to individual consumers, per one person's report on a discussion group (this may be state-dependent.... sometimes Californians and a few other states' consumers have some access to EVs).
2009 Honda FCX Clarity 2009 FCV 0.62 651.98 2.22 0.0026 74.00 74.00         4 ? 9                           based on epa, per manufacturer.
1981 Boeing 767 (full load of 211 passengers) 1981 Commercial Airplane 0.58 615.86 2.10 0.0024 69.90 69.90         211 11 http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,954906,00.html               No.          
2001 Honda Insight Hybrid 2-Seater  2001 NPHEV: Non-Pluggable Hybrid 0.57 599.12 2.04 0.0024 68.00 68.00         2 1               Yes  No. $20,180.00       2002 information: The Insight is for sale in the US. Honda apparently plans to incorporate this technology into a more widely available model. American Manufacturers, shamefully, still do not have a hybrid for sale, anywhere. They have accepted hundreds of millions of taxpayer dollars in assistance for designing their beautiful shiny never-sold prototypes.
                                                         
Vehicle  Year Of Vehicle Type of Vehicle  Miles Per International Standard Unit Energy (Megajoule) Miles Per Standardized Unit Energy (Million BTU (IT)) Miles Per Standardized Unit Energy (KWH) Miles Per KiloCalorie Miles Per Gallon Of Gasoline Equivalent, (MPGE) (1 gallon gasoline assumed equal to approximately 113,500 BTU (IT), depending on more than one variable factor) Background Data: Miles Per Gallon Gasoline (EPA Combined Cycle Where Possible) Background Data: Miles Per kWh (BEVs, others) Background Data: Miles Per Gallon of #2 Diesel Background Data: Miles Per Gallon B100 (100% Biodiesel) Background Data: Miles Per Million BTU Max Passenger Multiplier (approx.) Data Source Website Reference To Data Source Additional Websites Additional Websites Range Per Fully Charged Battery or Full Tank of Fuel  Full Tank Or Charge Energy Content 0-60 mph Acceleration  Top Speed  Regenerative Brakes Used  Grid-Chargeable  MSRP  Energy Conversion Type Storage Type Battery Type Comments, Notes
2000 Daimler Chrysler NECAR - 11/01/2000 version: Fuel Cell Electric Car  2000 Hybrid? H2 fuel cell-electric?  0.47 491.00 1.68 0.0019 55.73         491.0 4 4               ?    NOT FOR SALE        Prototype: Not available to buy. Powered by pure Hydrogen.
2001 Toyota Prius Hybrid 4-Seater  2001 NPHEV: Non-Pluggable Hybrid 0.38 396.48 1.35 0.0016 45.00 45.00         4 1               Yes  No. 20,450.00       2002 Notes: Higher city mileage than highway mileage. This gas-electric hybrid has been on sale in Japan for years. The Prius is now for sale in the US. It is wait-list-popular. American Manufacturers offer nothing comparable and claim that no-one wants such cars.
Amtrak   Diesel 0.36 378.85 1.29 0.0015 43.00 43.00         Hundreds 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_efficiency_in_transportation                          
2009 Civic Can't-Be-Plugged-In Hybrid 2009 NPHEV: Non-Pluggable Hybrid 0.35 370.04 1.26 0.0015 42.00 42.00         4 6                 No.          
2002 Volkswagen Beetle TDI (Turbo Diesel) running on B100  2002 Diesel (running Biodiesel, not Petroleum Diesel).  0.35 367.23 1.25 0.0015 41.68       43.00   4 1               --  No.         Biodiesel is made by chemically reacting alcohol with vegetable oils, fats or greases. It "can be used in unmodified diesel engines with the current fueling infrastructure" according to the DOE. I think a little research should be done before attempting to run biodiesel in your own engine.
Commuter Rail   electric or diesel rail? 0.32 334.80 1.14 0.0013 38.00 38.00         Hundreds 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_efficiency_in_transportation                          
                                                         
Vehicle  Year Of Vehicle Type of Vehicle  Miles Per International Standard Unit Energy (Megajoule) Miles Per Standardized Unit Energy (Million BTU (IT)) Miles Per Standardized Unit Energy (KWH) Miles Per KiloCalorie Miles Per Gallon Of Gasoline Equivalent, (MPGE) (1 gallon gasoline assumed equal to approximately 113,500 BTU (IT), depending on more than one variable factor) Background Data: Miles Per Gallon Gasoline (EPA Combined Cycle Where Possible) Background Data: Miles Per kWh (BEVs, others) Background Data: Miles Per Gallon of #2 Diesel Background Data: Miles Per Gallon B100 (100% Biodiesel) Background Data: Miles Per Million BTU Max Passenger Multiplier (approx.) Data Source Website Reference To Data Source Additional Websites Additional Websites Range Per Fully Charged Battery or Full Tank of Fuel  Full Tank Or Charge Energy Content 0-60 mph Acceleration  Top Speed  Regenerative Brakes Used  Grid-Chargeable  MSRP  Energy Conversion Type Storage Type Battery Type Comments, Notes
2009 Smart 2009 Conventional Gasoline 0.30 317.18 1.08 0.0013 36.00 36.00         2 6                            
2001 Honda Natural Gas Civic  2001 Compressed Natural Gas  0.28 299.56 1.02 0.0012 34.00 34.00         4 1               --  No. $20,230       Carbon emissions about 1/3 less per mile for natural gas than for other fossil fuels. 02/02/02: A colleague tells me that UPS is discontinuing its CNG truck operation because of the difficulties of refueling.
2001 Honda Accord LX Automatic  2001 Conventional Gasoline 0.25 264.32 0.90 0.0010 30.00 30.00         4 1               --  No. $19,590.00       Typical Family Car with good mileage.
2009 VW Jetta Diesel 2009 Conventional Diesel 0.25 258.96 0.88 0.0010 29.39     34.00     4 6                 No.          
2009 Civic (Manual or Automatic have same combined EPA estimate of 29) 2009 Conventional Gasoline 0.24 255.51 0.87 0.0010 29.00 29.00         4 6                 No.          
2009 Civic CNG 2009 Compressed Natural Gas  0.23 246.70 0.84 0.0010 28.00 28.00         4 6                 No.          
2002 Toyota RAV4 Gasoline 4 cylinder 2WD 5-speed 2002 Conventional Gasoline 0.20 211.45 0.72 0.0008 24.00 24.00         4 6                 No.          
MDI MiniCAT ? Compressed Air Powered Car ? ? ? ? ?   1.88 (generous estimate, for lack of solid data)       2 ? 10, 1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_car
http://zeropollutionmotors.us/?page_id=43 http://www.mdi.lu/english/cityflowair.php 4.69 (demonstrated with what fuel tank?) - 30 miles (claimed) 16                 I have not found a credible source for empirical real-world data claims on the various models of MDI Aircar except the claim in wikipedia that the one real test went only 7.55 km (4.69 miles).  Piecing together some website claims, they seem to claim that in theory the air-powered side of their cars will take you about 30 miles at city speeds.  For energy capacity, the manufacturer provides 3200 cubic feet stored at 4500 PSI which translates to about 16 kWh of onboard energy stored via compression of air.
                                                 
Selected numbers for comparing the mileage per Megajoule, per BTU, per kWh, per KiloCalorie of various vehicles.                                                
(Note: this is a work in progress.... many of the numbers are disputed and difficult to nail down.  Others' website estimates have been used where they are the best I (Josh Landess) can do for the moment.)                                                
Another page on this topic, unrelated to this website, which does a good job and focuses on passenger-mpg can be found here: http://strickland.ca/efficiency.html                                              
Original Web Page Location: http://www.herecomesmongo.com/ae/comptab.html                                              
                                                 
Data Source Key                                                
                                                 
1 Information provided by vehicle manufacturer.                                              
2 http://avt.inel.gov/fsev.shtml                                              
3 All fuel costs taken from local gas-station quotations and personal electric bills, May, 2000: 1.72 cents per gallon 87 Octane gasoline, $1.63 per gallon #2 diesel, and $0.09 cents per kWh electricity                                              
4 Per Company News Release 11/01/2000                                              
5 Measurements per owner Ken Adelman of www.adelman.com. Ken did say, though, that for the NiMH pack on his EV1 (not identical to RAV4, but instructive) the ideal charging method, to preserve battery life, is to charge it all the way up, and the last bit of 10% or so of 'topping-off' tends to be somewhat wasteful of energy. But since NiMH battery packs are expensive, energy-efficiency of charging is sacrificed to battery-preservation methods.                                              
6 FuelEconomy.Gov                                              
7 Pieced Together From Vehicle Manufacturer Incomplete Info                                              
8 Pieced Together From Vehicle Manufacturer Incomplete Info, and somewhat overly-speculative personal guesses.  Need more data                                              
9 EPA Estimate Posted By Manufacturer On Page                                              
10 Wikipedia                                              
11 magazine article                                              
12 Blog                                              
13 Mileage data extracted from testing report at government website.                                              
14 Strickland.CA                                              
                                               
Abbreviations:                                              
BTU (IT) = the type of BTU known as the “'International Table' British Thermal Unit”                                              
KWH = Kilowatt-Hours                                              
kcal (IT) = kilocalories (International Table)                                              
                                               
Standard Energy Conversions, (with some rounding and perhaps some approximation):                   http://www.unitconversion.org/unit_converter/energy-ex.html                          
1,000,000 Joules = 1 Megajoule = 947.817120313 BTU (IT) = 0.277777778 kWh = 238.845896627 kcal (IT)                                              
3,599,660 Joules = 3.599660 Megajoule = 3412 BTU (IT) = 1 kWh = 859.606381962 kcal (IT)                                              
119,748,839.27 Joules = 119.74883927 Megajoule = 113,500 BTU (IT) = 33.263566465 kWh = 28,601.318429349 kcal (IT)  [this is about 1 gallon of gasoline]                                              
1,055,055,852.62 Joules = 1055.05585262 Megajoule = 1,000,000 BTU (IT) = 293.071070172 kWh = 251,995.76111111 kcal (IT)                                              
                                               
Fuel-Energy Approximations:                                              
1 gallon non-reformulated gasoline = appoximately 113,500 BTU (depending on seasonality and other factors... Oil Industry Literature reportedly indicates that real-world gasoline sold at US pumps can go to 108,500 BTU or lower).                                              
1 gallon of #2 diesel = approximately 131,295 BTU (LHV)                                              
1 gallon of biodiesel = approximately 117,093 BTU (LHV)                                              
1 cubic foot of natural gas = approximately 1000 BTU                                              
1 lb H2 = approximately 61,000 BTU (HHV)                 DOE http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/tech_validation/pdfs/fcm01r0.pdf                          
1 kg H2 = approximately 134,481 BTU (HHV)                 calculated from DOE data                            
1 kg Boron = 54.644 MJ = 51793.4 BTU                   http://www.eagle.ca/~gcowan/boron_blast.html#BtE                          
1lb = 0.453592369999748 kg                                              
1 gallon = approximately 3.785 liters (1 quart = 1 quarter of a gallon = .946 Liters)                                              
                                               
Webster's Definitions:                                              
Energy:                                              
1. Joule: A unit of work or energy equal to the work done by a force of one newton acting through a distance of one meter.                                              
2. BTU: British Thermal Unit: the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at a specific temperature (as 39 degrees Fahrenheit).                                              
3. killowatt-hour: a unit of work or energy equal to that expended by one killowatt in one hour or to 3.6 million joules. [watt: n. [From the distinguished mechanician and scientist, James Watt.] (Physics) A unit of power or activity equal to 10^7 C.G.S. units of power, or to work done at the rate of one joule a second. An English horse power is approximately equal to 746 watts. ....the power dissipated by a current of 1 ampere flowing across a resistance of 1 ohm.]                                              
                                               
Other points:                                              
1 barrel (of Petroleum) = 42 gallons                                              
1 cubic foot = 28.3168466 liters                                              
                                               
                                               
                                               
07/06/00:                                              
1 Million BTU Wholesale Natural Gas (Futures Markets Price) = $4.07                                              
1 Million BTU Retail Unleaded 87 Octane Gas ($1.73 at the pump down the street x 8.81) = $15.24                                              
1 Million BTU Retail Electricity (Retail = about .09 per kWh x 293) = $26.37                                              
                                               
10/03/02: Other Points "LHV" values for Biodiesel and Diesel, given at Department of Energy Website:                                              
117,093 btu per gallon                                              
131,295 btu per gallon                                              
                                               
A helpful government site I found in the course of trying to follow up more accurately on BTU content per gallon of each fuel.                                              
                                               
                                               
11/28/01: Some realworld EV numbers courtesy www.adelman.com:                                              
... The RAV4-EV consumes .389kWh/mile [2.57 mile/kWh] measured at the charger input, averaged over approximately one month of our normal driving mix. I am currently working on measurements on our other EVs. The one data point I do have on a borrowed Gen1 (lead acid batteries) EV1 indicates .243kWh/mile, [4.12 mile/kWh] but this was mostly freeway driving. Note our EV1s are both Gen2 (NiMH batteries) and will use a bit more power than the Gen1 car.                                              
                                               
Nationally, this appears to be a link to various EV related links and hopefully some for-sale pages.                                              
                                               
How much oil does it take to produce one gallon of unleaded fuel?                 (source: discussion board poster)                            
                                               
    * There are 19.5 gallons of gasoline in a barrel of oil (which is 42 gallons).                                              
    * Efficiency of an internal combustion engine is about 22% and electric motor...about 96%(plus or minus a few points...depending on who built it).                                              
    * Here's some more info on what is produced from a barrel of oil in gallons....                                              
    * gasoline 19.5                                              
    * distillate fuel oil 9.2                                              
    * (Includes both home heating oil and diesel fuel)                                              
    * kerosene-type jet fuel 4.1                                              
    * residual fuel oil                                              
    * (Heavy oils used as fuels in industry, marine transportation and for electric power generation) 2.3                                              
    * liquefied refinery gasses 1.9                                              
    * still gas                                              
    * coke 1.8                                               
    * asphalt and road oil 1.3                                               
    * petrochemical feedstocks 1.2                                               
    * lubricants 0.5                                               
    * kerosene 0.2                                               
    * other 0.3                                               
                                               
Reasons for this page:                                              
1. To respond to the unfairness of the commonly-accepted idea of defining all mileage of all vehicles in terms of fossil fuels. Not all vehicles are fossil fuel powered.                                              
2. "Miles per gallon of gasoline" is not a scientifically exact standard of measurement. A gallon of gasoline is not a clearly-defined internationally-accepted Unit of Energy.                                              
3. Throughout our society, we see debates ended, and people mistreated, with unjust out-of-hand dismissals of their arguments for want of the intellect to separate many complex aspects of a problem. This is a deep problem in our society, one that is symptomatic of a possibly more difficult to solve, and possibly far worse problem, than oil dependency. I met some of that thinking in discussing hybrids and EV's, and noticed that the net result was that discussion was getting bogged down. I built this page to sidestep some of the argument. The objections to EV's which centered on their use of Electricity of highly debatable sustainability were simply ending all conversation and were not allowing for separating the many various important factors in assessing the sustainability of different vehicle technologies. The objections to EV electricity derivation are not unimportant, but they should not be used to dismiss discussion out-of-hand.